Working Women: Female Professionals on Classical Attic Gravestones

Ancient Greek Music
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promotime.md/representations-of-general-linear-groups-london-mathematical.php Religion was the one area of public life in which women could participate freely; [] according to Christopher Carey, it was the "only area of Greek life in which a woman could approach anything like the influence of a man". The state-controlled Eleusinian mysteries , for instance, were open to all Greek speaking people, men and women, free and unfree alike. The cult of Athena Polias the city's eponymous goddess was central to Athenian society, reinforcing morality and maintaining societal structure.

According to Herodotus , before the Battle of Salamis the priestess of Athena encouraged the evacuation of Athens by telling the Athenians that the snake sacred to Athena which lived on the Acropolis had already left. The most important festival to Athena in Athens was the Lesser Panathenaea , held annually, which was open to both sexes.

The girls were required to be virgins; to prevent a candidate from being selected was, according to Pomeroy, to question her good name. Each year, the women of Athens weaved a new peplos for a wooden statue of Athena. Every four years, for the Great Panathenaea, the peplos was for a much larger statue of Athena and could be used as a sail. Women were able to take part in almost every religious festival in classical Athens, but some significant festivals were restricted only to women.

During the festival women stayed for three days on Demeter's hilltop sanctuary, conducting rites and celebrating. Most women's festivals were dedicated to Demeter, [] but some festivals including the Brauronia and the Arrhephoria honoured other goddesses.

Both these festivals were rites of passage in which girls became adult women. In the Brauronia, virgin girls were consecrated to Artemis of Brauron before marriage; [] in the Arrhephoria, girls Arrhephoroi who had spent the previous year serving Athena left the Acropolis by a passage near the precinct of Aphrodite carrying baskets filled with items unknown to them. The Athenian festival of the Great Dionysia included five days of dramatic performances in the Theatre of Dionysus , and the Lenaia had a dramatic competition as part of its festival. Whether women were permitted to attend the theatre during these festivals has been the subject of lengthy debate by classicists, [note 6] largely revolving around whether the theatre was considered a religious or a civic event.

Jeffrey Henderson writes that women were present in the theatre, citing Plato's Laws and Gorgias as saying that drama was addressed to men, women and children. According to Simon Goldhill, the evidence is fundamentally inconclusive. Along with the major community-based religious rituals, women played an important role in domestic religion. They were especially important in celebrating rites of passage — especially weddings, childbirth, and funerals. They also played a major role in funeral and mourning rituals.

Before marriage, girls made dedications to Artemis, often of childhood toys and locks of hair.

By the classical period, laws designated which women could mourn at a funeral; mourners had to be cousins of, or more closely related to, the deceased. The economic power of Athenian women was legally constrained. Historians have traditionally considered that ancient Greek women, particularly in Classical Athens, lacked economic influence. Although Athenian women were not legally permitted to dispose of large sums of money, they frequently had large dowries which supported them throughout their lives.

The larger a woman's dowry relative to her husband's wealth, the more influence she was likely to have in the household since she retained the dowry if the couple divorced. Respectable Athenian women remained separate from unrelated men and Athenian citizens considered it degrading for citizen-women to work, [] but women free and unfree are attested as working in a number of capacities. Women engaged in occupations which were an extension of household jobs, such as textile work and washing, [] and those unrelated to household tasks: cobblers, gilders, net-weavers, potters, and grooms.

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Some Athenian citizen women were merchants, [] and Athenian law forbade criticism of anyone male or female for selling in the marketplace. In classical Athens, female prostitution was legal, albeit disreputable, and prostitution was taxed. Prostitutes were often hired by the hosts of symposia as entertainment for guests, as seen in red-figure vase paintings. Prostitutes were also drawn on drinking cups as pinups for male entertainment. Hetairai could be the most independent, wealthy, and influential women in Athens, [] and could form long-term relationships with rich and powerful men.

Athenian prostitutes probably committed infanticide more frequently than married citizen women; [] Sarah Pomeroy suggests that they would have preferred daughters — who could become prostitutes — to sons. Some prostitutes also bought slaves, and trained abandoned children to work in the profession. Media related to Ancient Athenian women at Wikimedia Commons. The Grave Stele of Hegeso c. Beginning around , Athenian funerary monuments increasingly depicted women as their civic importance increased. Much of it is literary evidence, primarily from tragedy, comedy, and oratory; supplemented with archaeological sources such as epigraphy and pottery.

Athenian democracy was established in BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for years, until BC aftermath of Lamian War. In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum,[2][3] Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophe.

Athenian moicheia was restricted to illicit sex with free women, and so men could legally have extra-marital sex with slaves and prostitutes. Famously, Athenian culture and adultery laws considered seduction of a citizen woman a worse crime than rape. Moicheia was defined more broadly than the English "adultery", however, referring to any "seduction of a free woman under the protection of a kyrios".

In at least one case, detailed in the speech Against Neaera, we know that an alleged moichos was imprisoned based on a father's right to punish moicheia committed against his daughter. The status and characteristics of ancient and modern-day women in Greece evolved from the events that occurred in the history of Greece. According to Michael Scott, in his article "The Rise of Women in Ancient Greece" History Today , "place of women" and their achievements in ancient Greece was best described by Thucidydes in this quotation: that The greatest glory [for women] is to be least talked about among men, whether in praise or blame.

In , they received their right to vote,[5] which led to their earning places and job positions in businesses and in the government of Greece; and they were able to maintain their right to inherit property, even after being married. Attic red-figure kylix, 5th BC, Stoa of Attalos Social, legal and political status Although mostly women lacked political and equal rights in ancient Gre. To contemporaries outside of Sparta, Spartan women had a reputation for promiscuity and controlling their husbands.

Unlike their Athenian counterparts, Spartan women could legally own and inherit property and they were usually better educated. The extant written sources are limited and from a largely non-Spartan viewpoint. As Anton Powell puts it, to say that the written sources are "'not without problems' Its meaning shifts even within texts, which can lead to confusion. In normal Attic usage the oikos, in the context of families, referred to a line of descent from father to son from generation to generation.

Thus, the head of the oikos, along with his immediate family and his slaves, would all be encompassed. Layout Traditional interpretations of the layout of the oikos in Classical Athens have divided into men's and women's spaces, with an area known as the gynaiko. View of the ancient agora. The temple of Hephaestus is to the left and the Stoa of Attalos to the right. The Ancient Agora of Classical Athens is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the west by the hill known as the Agoraios Kolonos, also called Market Hill.

Number 13 is the Temple of Hephaestus. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony, economic growth and cultural flourishing formerly known as the Golden Age of Athens with the later part The Age of Pericles. The period began in BC after defeat of the Persian invasion, when an Athenian-led coalition of city-states, known as the Delian League, confronted the Persians to keep the liberated Asian Greek cities free. After peace was made with Persia in the mid 5th century BC, what started as an alliance of independent city-states became an Athenian empire when Athens abandoned the pretense of parity among its allies and relocated the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens, where it funded the building of the Athenian Acropolis and put half its population on the public payroll and maintained dominating naval power in the Greek world.

A major makeover for a hardworking businesswoman

With the empire's funds, military dominance and its political fortunes guided by statesman and orator Pericles, Athens produc. The work covers the lives of women in antiquity from the Greek Dark Ages to the death of Constantine the Great. Balsdon's Roman Women,[4] and it was praised for its lack of "polemical bias". Nineteenth-century painting by Philipp Foltz depicting the Athenian politician Pericles delivering his famous funeral oration in front of the Assembly. The relief representation depicts the personified Demos being crowned by Democracy. About BC. Ancient Agora Museum.

Athenian democracy developed around the sixth century BC in the Greek city-state known as a polis of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. Athens practiced a political system of legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents, but was instead limited to adult, male citizens i.

Gynophobia or gynephobia is an abnormal fear of women, a type of specific social phobia. Marriages were usually arranged by the parents; professional matchmakers were reluctantly used. Each city was politically independent, with its own laws affecting marriage. Orphaned daughters were left to uncles or cousins.

For the marriage to be legal, the woman's father or guardian gave permission to a suitable male who could afford to marry. Wintertime marriages were popular. The couple participated in a ceremony which included rituals such as veil removal but the couple living together made the marriage legal. Marriage as a public interest The ancient Greek legislators considered marriage to be a matter of public interest. This was particularly the case at Sparta, where the subordination of private interests and personal happiness to the good of the public was strongly encouraged by the laws of the city.

One example of the legal importance of marriage can be found in the laws of Lycu. Later, in the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greece, education in a gymnasium school was considered essential for participation in Greek culture. The value of physical education to the ancient Greeks and Romans has been historically unique. There were two forms of education in ancient Greece: formal and informal. Formal education was attained through attendance to a public school or was provided by a hired tutor. Informal education was provided by an unpaid teacher, and occurred in a non-public setting. Education was an essential component of a person's identity.

Formal Greek education was primarily for males and non-slaves. The Plague of Athens, Michiel Sweerts, c. It is believed to have entered Athens through Piraeus, the city's port and sole source of food and supplies. Much of the eastern Mediterranean also saw outbreak of the disease, albeit with less impact. Some 30 pathogens have been suggested as causing the plague. In the face of a combined campaign on land from Sparta and its allies beginning in BC, the Athenians, under the direction of Pericles, pursued a policy of retreat within the city walls of.

Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3, years[4] and its earliest human presence started somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. A center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum,[6][7] it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy,[8][9] largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.

Athens is a global city and one of the biggest e. Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the ancient shrine to Helen and Menelaus constructed in the Bronze Age city that stood on the hill of Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas River overlooking the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive ridges of Mount Taygetus are in evidence.

Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the Greco-Persian Wars, in rivalry with the rising naval power of Athens. Phryne at the Poseidonia in Eleusis by Henryk Siemiradzki, c. Phryne is shown naked, preparing to step into the sea. She is best known for her trial for impiety, where she was defended by the orator Hypereides.

Life A copy of the Aphrodite of Knidos. Phryne is said to be the model of the original. In that year Thebes razed Thespiae not long after the battle of Leuctra and expelled its inhabitants. Fame Athenaeus provide. Myrtis' reconstructed appearance, National Archaeological Museum of Athens Myrtis is the name given by archaeologists to an year-old girl from ancient Athens, whose remains were discovered in —95 in a mass grave during work to build the metro station at Kerameikos, Greece.

Before Myrtis, no attempt to reconstruct an Ancient Greek layperson's face has been recorded. The festival calendar of Classical Athens involved the staging of many festivals each year. Except for slaves, all inhabitants of the polis could take part in the festival. This holiday of great antiquity is believed to have been the observance of Athena's birthday and honoured the goddess as the city's patron divinity, Athena Polias 'Athena of the city'.

A procession assembled before dawn at the Dipylon gate in the northern sector of the city.

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The procession, led by the Kanephoros, made its way to the Areopagus and in front of the Temple of Athena Nike next to the Propylaea. Only Athenian citizens were allowed to pass through the Propylaea and enter the Acropolis. The procession passed the Parthenon and stopped at the great altar of Athena in front of the Erechtheum. Origin The history of foreign migration to Athens dates back to the archaic period.

Solon was said to have offered Athenian citizenship to foreigners who would relocate to his city to practice a craft. Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst campaigning for women's suffrage Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and which formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed.

They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Classical Greece was a period of around years 5th and 4th centuries BC in Greek culture. Classical Greece had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and on the foundations of Western civilization.

Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought architecture, sculpture , scientific thought, theatre, literature and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period[3] corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in BC and the death of Alexander the Great in BC. The Classical period in this sense follows the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the.

In other words, a women's quarters, similar to the Indian and Muslim zenana. The gynaeceum is the counterpart to the andron, or male quarters. The married woman of the household would often join the unmarried women and the female slaves at night when she did not join her husband. The women spent most of their days in this area of the house. These rooms were more remote from those reserved for the men by placing them away from the streets and public areas of the house.

When visitors were entertained the women were not present, but remained in this secluded portion of th. The educated and well-traveled Vibia Sabina ca. But while Roman women held no direct political power, those from wealthy or powerful families could and did exert influence through private negotiations. Pleione, their mother, is the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys and is the protector of sailors.

Among the Pleiades In one story, the Pleiades, along with their half sisters the Hyades, were the virgin companions to Artemis.

Artemis was the twin of Apollo and daughter of Leto and Zeus, and a protector of both hunters and wild animals. The Pleiades were nymphs, and along with their half sisters, were called Atlantides, Modonodes, or Nysiades and were the caretakers of the infant Bacchus. Artemis asked Zeus to protect the Pleiades and in turn, Z. The sight of her nude body, according to legend, persuaded the jurors to acquit her. Traditionally, historians of ancient Greece have distinguished between hetairai and pornai, another class of prostitute in ancient Greece.

In contrast to pornai, who provided sex for numerous clients in brothels or on the street, hetairai were thought to have had only a few men as clients at any one time, to have had long-term relationships with them, and to have provided companionship and intellectual stimulation as well as sex. Marble herma in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasia's name at the base. Discovered in , this marble herm is a Roman copy of a fifth-century BC original and may represent Aspasia's funerary stele.

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'WORKING WOMEN': FEMALE PROFESSIONALS ON. CLASSICAL ATTIC GRAVESTONES'. THE GRAVESTONES. ATHENIAN funerary sculpture of the fourth. Figured gravestones commemorating female professionals constitute a distinct group among Attic memorials of the Classical period. Gravestones of this group.

The couple had a son, Pericles the Younger, but the full details of the couple's marital status are unknown. According to Plutarch, her house became an intellectual centre in Athens, attracting the most prominent writers and thinkers, including the philosopher Socrates. There are also suggestions in ancient sources that the teachings of Aspasia influenced Socrates.

Archaeology of Classical Greece

Aspasia is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and others. Though she spent most of her adult life in Greece, few details of her life are fully known. Many scholars have credited ancient comic depictions of Aspasia as a brothel keeper and a prostitut. It is a speech for the prosecution in the case of a woman accused by her stepson of arranging for the murder of his father, her husband. As with most surviving legal speeches from classical Athens, the outcome of the case is unknown.

Background The speech was given as part of a trial of a woman for killing her husband some years previously. The representation of women in Athenian tragedy was performed exclusively by men and it is likely although the evidence is not conclusive that it was performed solely for men as well. Only one of the surviving 32 plays has no female characters: Sophocles' Philoctetes. Female tragic choruses also outnumber the male choruses by twenty-one to ten. However Xenophon reflects the Greek fear of these 'others', highlighting their irrationality, religious fervour and sexual passion.

Modern scholarship identifies three major stages in monumental sculpture. At all periods there were great numbers of Greek terracotta figurines and small sculptures in metal and other materials. The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year's Olympic boxing champion.

The statue, originally single but by the Hellenistic period often in groups was the dominant form, though reliefs, often so "high" that they were almost free-standing, were also important. Materials Natural marble By the classical period, roughly the 5th and 4th centuries, monumental sculpture was composed almost entirely o. AD Together with Dionysius the Areopagite she embraced the Christian faith following Paul's speech. The verse reads: "Howbeit certain men clave unto him, and believed: among the which was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them.

The speech made against Neaira in this trial by Apollodorus is preserved as Demosthenes' fifty-ninth speech, though the speech is often attributed to Pseudo-Demosthenes, who seems to have worked on many of the speeches given by Apollodorus. It concerns a case brought against Neaira when she was about fifty[4] by Apollodorus' son-in-law Theomnestus, though apart from a brief introduction of the case given by Theomnestus, Apollodorus delivered the entirety of.

Family and early life She was born September 30, in Thessaloniki, Greece, where her parents studied, and is the oldest of three daughters. At age 2, they moved to Xanthi, her mother's hometown. There she began the first courses of piano in the National Conservatoire of Xanthi at 5 and a half. A few years later she moved to Athens Cholargos , her father's hometown.

She gave her first public performance at age seven in "Parnassos Hall" in Athens, playing Claude Debussy. From she appeared in many piano concerts, in various Greek cities. In she received her degree in piano and in a diploma Soloist, studying under Dimitris Toufexis. Theatre education. Celebrating the Adonia: fragment of an Attic red-figure wedding vase, ca. It is best attested in classical Athens, though other sources provide evidence for the ritual mourning of Adonis elsewhere in the Greek world, including Hellenistic Alexandria and Argos in the second century AD.

Athenian festival In Athens, the Adonia took place annually,[1] and was organised and celebrated by women. It was one of a number of Athenian festivals which were celebrated solely by women and addressed sexual or reproductive subjects — others included the Thesmophoria, Haloa, and Skira. A variety of roles were played by women in post-classical warfare.

James Illston says "the field of medieval gender studies is a growing one, and nowhere is this expansion more evident than the recent increase in studies which address the roles of medieval women in times of war He provides a page bibliography of dozens of recent scholarly books and articles, most of them connected to the crusades.

The Acropolis of Athens by Leo von Klenze Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least years. During the early Middle Ages, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades 12th and 13th centuries , benefiting from Italian trade. Following a period of sharp decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent and self-governing Greek state.

Name The name of Athens, connected to the name of its patron goddess Athena, originates from an earlier Pre-Greek language. This illustration, from a medieval translation c. The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first women's rights declarations was the Declaration of Sentiments. Mosaic law In the Mosaic law, for monetary matters, women's and men's rights were almost exactly equal. A woman was entitled to her own private property, including land, livestock, slaves, and servants.

A stele depicting six figures

Of all Greek thinkers, only Plato , in his dialogue The Republic ca. This relationship between political ideology, between the symbolic marks of the sustenance of a hegemonic groups of citizens, and the appearance of praise for women in funerary spaces of exposure, strongly indicates that, through the request for praise of families, is being generated a space of political negotiations in a space of coexistence between citizens and 'others. The position of Christos Tsagalis, in short, starts from the assumption that Athenian women existed in the space of the house and for the family; he ignores C. We wish you good luck this semester. First, in relation to the periodization. Ober, art. White-ground lekythos by the Sabouroff Painter, BC.

A woman had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death gift, and in the absence of sons would inherit everything. A woman could likewise bequeath her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon dying intestate, a woman's property would be inherited by her children if she had them, her husband if she was married, or her father if she were single.

A woman could sue in court and did not need a m.

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Bramante as Euclid or Archimedes. Out of the ordinary are two "medical" stelai of a father and son Nos. In the next two sections, "Shape and Object Analysis", I. While the tall, narrow proportions of the stelai resemble those of Classical Attic monuments, there are important differences with respect to decoration, for the Attic examples usually have figural decoration while the Chersonesan monuments have isolated, Greek-inspired objects.

The raking light revealed horizontal and vertical incisions intended to divide the surface area for centering the decoration, and the palette is limited to white, yellow, green, blue, purple, red, brown and black. In most cases, the pigments were applied flat, with only minimal evidence of shading on the ribbons of the taeniae and other objects like the cupping vessels. Relating the shape of the stelai to the inscriptions suggests that the crowning elements and decoration were both age and gender specific. That is, those monuments topped with horizontal painted moldings were nearly all for adult males; those with gables were for women; and the few stelai with anthemia were for either young men or unmarried women.

Additionally, the taeniae with suspended alabastra decorate married women's stelai; the military equipment those of adult males; the athletic equipment on those belonging to young men; and the walking-sticks probably identified older men. The picture that emerges is that the homogeneity of the stelai's forms and decoration served to identify the social position of the deceased. This feature is unique to the Chersonesan stelai, for in Classical Athens taenia stelai were erected for both genders.

The stelai found inside the Tower Nos. Twenty-four stelai from inside the Tower Nos. Later stelai from outside the Tower Nos. C are modestly decorated and poorly executed, and others are unpainted and have a hollow space for the insertion of an inscribed marble tablet Nos. In the next two sections, "Dating of the Grave Stelai", I.

Since they constitute a unique group among Greek funerary monuments and have not been previously considered by western scholars, establishing a chronology for the Chersonesan stelai is problematic. In spite of their Greek proportions and decorative motifs, however, the Chersonesan examples are distinctive. The presence of up to 3 mortises on a stele's base suggests that a small limestone naiskos and anthropomorphic object in the form of a human head may have accompanied the tombstone. Objects similar to the Chersonesan anthropomorphic forms have been found in the region and may have signified the spirit of the deceased.

The grave-markers from Chersonesos, then, were a unique amalgam of traditional Greek-style monuments and indigenous elements. In the late 5th century BC the city was largely confined to the peninsula, with its first walls probably built in the 4th century. The stelai exhibited a "distinct conformity" , with gender and age specific forms and decoration underscoring the deceased's social standing.

The presence of anthropomorphic objects and naiskoi reflected a "mixing of ethnicities" in the community. Not long after the last stelai were erected in the necropolis mid 3rd century , the monuments were dismantled, broken into similarly shaped ashlar blocks, and "ritually buried" within new fortifications and the Tower of Zeno; the dead were most likely reburied in a new cemetery. The proximity of similar stelai inside the Tower enabled later researchers to reconstruct family-groups and workshops, with the likelihood that certain families employed specific workshops.

In the first, the focus is on the stelai's inscriptions and the identification of the names. Most names inscribed on the stelai are popular Greek names, a few are unique to Chersonesos and to the region, and some are non-Greek names indicating a diffusion of foreign cults in the area the female name Mendiko, for example, derives from the Thracian goddess Bendis. A comparison between names on the stelai and those stamped on local amphora handles and on Chersonesan coins indicates that some of the deceased were civic regulators of the wine-trade astunomoi and minting officials.

The study of the pigments, while preliminary, revealed a simple palette and explained the preservation of the paints as due, not to the survival of the original binding medium possibly beeswax , but to the formation of authogenic particles that naturally consolidated the pigments. Further study is to be made on the limestone, plaster, and painting fragments.

This publication is a thorough study of a group of unique stelai whose painted decoration is remarkably well preserved. The age and gender specific nature of the decoration indicates that the role of the deceased, whether civic official or family-member, was important. The uniformity of the motifs may reflect the egalitarian nature of the community and the epitaphs suggest that the people being commemorated were prosperous citizens. The most interesting aspect of this study is the identity of the painted stelai as products of a "mixture of identities. The stelai they chose to commemorate their loved ones, in their form and decoration, proclaimed these cross-cultural connections.

Gruen , underscores the growing importance of this type of research, for no longer can we study peoples of the Mediterranean in isolation. The painted stelai from Chersonesos demonstrate that by the Early Hellenistic period the descendants of the original Greek settlers had absorbed aspects of native Black Sea culture.