http://erp.legacyrealties.com/short-twisted.php The Slave Dynasty ruled the Sub-continent for about 84 years. It was the first Muslim dynasty that ruled India. Qutub-ud-din Aibak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who became the ruler after the death of his master, founded the Slave Dynasty. He was a great builder who built the majestic feet high stone tower known as Qutub Minar in Delhi.
The next important king of the Slave dynasty was Shams-ud-din Iltutmush, who himself was a slave of Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Iltutmush ruled for around 26 years from to and was responsible for setting the Sultanate of Delhi on strong footings. Razia Begum, the capable daughter of Iltutmush, was the first and the only Muslim lady who ever adorned the throne of Delhi. She fought valiantly, but was defeated and killed. Finally, the youngest son of Iltutmush, Nasir-ud-din Mahmud became Sultan in Though Mahmud ruled India for around 20 years, but throughout his tenure the main power remained in the hands of Balban, his Prime Minister.
On death of Mahmud, Balban directly took over the throne and ruled Delhi. During his rule from to , Balban consolidated the administrative set up of the empire and completed the work started by Iltutmush.
Following the death of Balban, the Sultanate became weak and there were number of revolts. This was the period when the nobles placed Jalal-ud-din Khilji on the throne. This marked the beginning of Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in A.
Ala-ud-din Khilji, a nephew of Jalal-ud-din Khilji hatched a conspiracy and got Sultan Jalal-ud-din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan in Ala-ud-din Khilji was the first Muslim ruler whose empire covered almost whole of India up to its extreme south. During his reign of 20 years, Mongols invaded the country several times but were successfully repulsed. From these invasion Alla-ud-din Khilji learnt the lessons of keeping himself prepared, by fortifying and organizing his armed forces.
Alla-ud-din died in A. Ghyasuddin Tughlaq, who was the Governor of Punjab during the reign of Ala-ud-din Khilji, ascended the throne in A. He conquered Warrangal and put down a revolt in Bengal. Mongols invaded India during Tughlaq rule, and were defeated this time too. However, it had to be shifted back within two years.
He inherited a massive empire but lost many of its provinces, more particularly Deccan and Bengal. He died in A. Feroz Tughlaq did not contribute much to expand the territories of the empire, which he inherited.
He devoted much of his energy to the betterment of the people. The following is a brief timeline that highlights some of the major occurrences in Islam's development, as well as the geographical spread of Islam to some of the countries featured in the film. Muhammad is born in Mecca. He comes from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and upright character. According to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Mecca.
The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God's prophet. Later, Muhammad is told to call his people to the worship of the one God, but they react with hostility and begin to persecute him and his followers.
After enduring persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers migrate to the nearby town of Yathrib later to be known as Medina , where the people there accepted Islam. This marks the "hijrah" or "emigration," and the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad establishes an Islamic state based on the laws revealed in the Quran and the inspired guidance coming to him from God.
Abd-ar-Rahman III united al-Andalus and brought the Christian kingdoms of the north under control through force and diplomacy. This group, the Sunnis, comprise nearly ninety percent of present-day Muslims. The caliphate enjoyed increased prosperity during the 10th century. Although the major writings on Arabian music appeared after the dawn of Islam CE , music had already been cultivated for thousands of years. In short, a monotheistic expansion from the Arabian Peninsula was in the making and its chances were greatly improved when the Sassanian Persians attacked the Byzantine Empire. The Qur'an has a number of passages that support military action against non-Muslims , for example:.
Eventually he begins to invite other tribes and nations to Islam. Muhammad returns to Mecca with a large number of his followers. He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The prophet clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba and rededicates it to the worship of God alone.
Muhammad dies after a prolonged illness. The Muslim community elects his father-in-law and close associate, Abu Bakr, as caliph, or successor. Muslims enter Egypt and rout the Byzantine army. These early revelations pointed to the existence of a single God, contradicting the polytheistic beliefs of the pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula. Initially overwhelmed by the significance of what was being revealed to him, Muhammad found unflinching support in his wife and slowly began to attract followers.
His strong monotheistic message angered many of the Meccan merchants. They were afraid that trade, which they believed was protected by the pagan gods, would suffer. From that point forward, Muhammad was ostracized in Mecca. For a time, the influence and status of his wife and his uncle, Abu Talib, the chief of the clan, protected Muhammad from persecution. After they died, however, Muhammad's situation in Mecca became dire. The Hijra Emigration became the only hope for Muhammad and his followers' survival.
In , they headed to Medina, another oasis town, where they were promised freedom to practice their religion. The move from Mecca to Medina is known as the hijra —the flight—and marks year 1 of the Islamic, or hijri , calendar. Spreading the Message of Islam In Medina, Muhammad continued to receive divine revelations and built an ever-expanding community around the new faith. The conflict with the Quraish continued, but after several years of violent clashes, Mecca surrendered. Muhammad and his followers soon returned and took over the city, destroying all its pagan idols and spreading their belief in one God.
One night, while the Prophet was sleeping, the Archangel Gabriel came and led him on a journey.