http://ras.boxed-rocket.com/pandemic-1918-canada-and-the-spanish-influenza.php Their discovery led to a greater understanding of how the mechanism operates, in both plants and animals. RNAi gene silencing technology has enabled scientists to develop a safflower seed oil that contains more than 90 per cent oleic acid, a valuable fatty acid for industrial applications. RNA interference RNAi is one of the most powerful technologies for discovering important trait genes and developing novel traits in plants and animals. It holds tremendous promise as a therapeutic agent to control disease and prevent infection in plant and animal cells and has been adopted by research and biotechnology laboratories around the world.
In , the RNAi team won a CSIRO Medal - an award which honours our biggest and brightest achievements for the year in the fields of research, business, and lifetime achievement. There are many advantages for this proven technology over other methods used for reduction of gene expression. The RNAi technology is:. RNAi technology can be used to identify which genes are responsible for particular traits so that breeders can produce non-genetically modified plants.
CSIRO has a long history of developing wheat varieties with beneficial traits for yield, quality and disease resistance and environmental tolerance. This has included identifying genes of interest and validating them as potential targets, as well as observing phenotypes in proof of concept tests. Aquaculture is the world's fastest growing food production sector. CSIRO researchers are working with the aquaculture industry to achieve sustainable feed formulations, enhanced growth, survival and feed conversion rates and increased tolerance to viral diseases.
Viruses are a significant problem in many of Australia's crop plants, so having virus-resistant plants can mean many benefits to farmers, the environment and the economy. An example is where researchers developed cereal varieties with resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus. The virus can cause yield losses of about per cent in cereals such as wheat and barley. Drug Discovery. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.
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Indeed, studies from late s to early s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the. Interest in gene silencing-related mechanisms stemmed from the early s, when this phenomenon was first noted as a surprise observation by plant.
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The European Respiratory Journal. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Sense Transgene-induced RNA Silencing Sense transgenes can be silenced both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally, which often occurs when transgenes are integrated into the plant genome as multiple-copy repeats [ 1 , 36 ].
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Intrinsic Direct-repeat Transgene A transgene containing a two-copy tandem repeat sequence in the transcribed region was previously shown to induce stronger silencing than the simple sense and antisense transgenes, although at a lower efficiency than the hpRNA transgene [ 67 ]. Terminator-less Transgenes Another distinct transgene structure has been found to induce effective gene silencing in plants. Enhancement of Resistance to Biotic Stresses Biotic stresses caused by viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases as well as insects, and nematodes are severe constraints to crop productivity.
Alteration of Plant Architecture and Flowering Time A number of studies carried out in tomato and petunia on genetic manipulation of plant architecture through RNA silencing have served as platforms for understanding the molecular basis of plant architecture [ ]. Development of Seedless Fruits Absence of seeds in fruits is appreciated by consumers for fresh consumption as well as in conserved or processed fruit products.
Modification of Flower Color and Scent A change in color or pattern of ornamental flowers could enhance value in the market. Secondary Metabolites for Neutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Applications RNA silencing technology has been used to enhance nutritional value by altering the accumulation of specific metabolites in fruits, as exemplified by the carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomato [ ].
Prolongation of Shelf-life The increase in shelf life of vegetables and fruits by delayed ripening process is highly desirable as the post-harvest deterioration and spoilage is one of the major causes of economic loss in horticultural plants. Removal of Toxic Compounds and Allergens Plants are known to contain nutritionally undesirable compounds or toxins of various types, removal of which from plants is often a cumbersome and a costly process.
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